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Publications . . .

Herold, P. C., & Dasgupta, C. (2023, Dec). Adapting Noticing Framework to Analyze Learner’s Reasoning in VR-simulated complex scenarios. The 31st International Conference on Computers in Education. Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education.

Abstract – Car drivers learning to make decisions in Indian on-road scenarios is challenging. We designed and simulated a complex on-road scenario using virtual reality technology to help learners experience alternate perspectives of their driving actions. Our research focused on the cognitive influences on decision-making and adapted the noticing framework as the analytical lens. Four participants drove a car on virtual Indian city roads accompanied by a virtual conversational agent to elicit their reasoning while making decisions, followed by a stimulated recall protocol. We recorded each participant’s actions and timestamped conversations with the agent and researcher. We inductively coded the noticing episodes and interpreted six types of conceptual relationships between the designed elements in the VR scenario. These interpreted codes could help us analyze the changes in a learner’s noticing patterns after taking alternate perspectives. This paper highlights the usefulness of the adapted noticing framework for future studies with multiple complex VR scenarios.

Herold, P. C., & Dasgupta, C. (2023, July). Design of embodied conversational agent to elicit participants’ reasoning for their decisions taken inside a VR environment. In 2023 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT).

Abstract – Eliciting participants’ reasoning for their decisions taken inside a VR environment is challenging. This research explores the use of an embodied conversational agent with a wizard-of-Oz method to elicit participants’ reasoning while driving a car in complex public scenarios on Indian roads, simulated using VR. Participants were made to drive a car in a VR city environment, with a complex public scenario unfolding in front of them. The co-passenger inside the car, acting as the embodied conversational agent, assumed a peer role, with conversations triggered by the researcher based on the response given or dialogue said by the participant. Each participant’s actions, gaze, and dialogues were recorded along with timestamp data. The method’s effectiveness was evaluated by analyzing the frequency of appropriate elicitations from four participants by coding their conversations based on the noticing framework and mapping the action/gaze data with conversation triggers. Results suggest that the embodied conversational agent contributed to elicitations as much the same as the usual stimulated recall method conducted after the intervention, with the added advantage of not hindering the virtual presence of the participants.

Herold, P. C., Khwaja, U., Murthy, S., & Dasgupta, C. (2019, December). RoadEthos: Game-based learning to sensitize children on road safety through ethical reasoning. In 2019 IEEE Tenth International Conference on Technology for Education (T4E) (pp. 27-33). IEEE.

Abstract – Road safety training programs focusing on practical methods have been known to help novice drivers acquire the knowledge and skills required to drive on the road and improve their judgments. However, the attitude required for safe behavior is often overlooked, leading to road mishaps. This led us to study the ethical reasoning that influences people’s attitude while taking a decision on the road. It is also reported that road safety education should commence as early as the age
of 4-5 and needs to be pursued through primary and secondary school. Hence, we designed and developed a game-based learning environment, RoadEthos, using three technologies (Scratch, Arduino, 3D printer) to sensitize children towards road safety through ethical reasoning in road scenarios. The design of the game and its scenarios are based on the theoretical underpinnings of empathy and situated learning. This paper reports the results and analysis of a study conducted with 5
students of the age group 10-12, where we captured students’ actions, decisions and their change in ethical reasoning, before and after interacting with this game. The paper concludes with the next steps for the project, in terms of its design and implementation.

Herold, P. C., Dasgupta, C., Murthy, S., & Joshi, A. (2019, July). MathReality: A Bridge from Concrete to Abstract via an AR app for Mathematics Concept of Exponents. In 2019 IEEE 19th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT) (Vol. 2161, pp. 282-286). IEEE.

Abstract – Mathematics is a challenging subject for middle school students due to the introduction of concepts that are abstract and unrelatable in a real-world context. Emerging Augmented Reality (AR) technologies afford to visualize those abstract concepts integrated with the physical environment. Hence, we developed an AR app, MathReality, to teach the mathematics concept of exponents in more concrete ways and help them move from concrete to more abstract understanding of the concept. Preliminary results suggest the app was useful to the users and helped them learn the concept easily. The paper concludes with the next steps for the project, in terms of its design, implementation and evaluation.

Lakshmi, T. G., & Herold, P. C. (2019, December). Heuristic Evaluation and User Experience Redesign of ‘Think & Link’ Learning Environment–A Case Study. In 2019 IEEE Tenth International Conference on Technology for Education (T4E) (pp. 166-169). IEEE.​​​​​​​

Abstract – The online learning environment ‘think & link’ facilitates the teaching-learning of software conceptual design for undergraduate computer engineers. The learning environment’s design can influence learners’ learning experience. In this paper, we report the process of heuristic evaluation to evaluate the learning experience provided by ‘think & link’. Heuristic evaluation involves the expert(s) to evaluate a user interface based on usability criteria to identify usability problems. Findings from the heuristic evaluation indicated certain issues relating to user experience and resulted in a user experience redesign. The process of evaluation, usability problems identified and redesign is presented as a case study.

Pillai, Jayesh S., Azif Ismail, and Herold P. Charles. “Grammar of VR storytelling: Visual cues.” In Proceedings of the Virtual Reality International Conference-Laval Virtual 2017, pp. 1-4. 2017.​​​​​​​

Abstract – Visual storytelling is an integral part of the experience in media such as comic books, movies, video games and virtual reality. The grammar of storytelling that has been explored abundantly in virtual reality has close relationship with that of video games. However, while designing content for virtual reality video experiences one must understand and consider the fundamental distinctions between 360 panoramic storytelling and a traditional frame-bound visual narrative. In this study, we attempt to understand the visual cues in a virtual reality space and propose guidelines that would guide the viewer in orienting towards the intended point-of-view.

P. Lotlikar, D. Pathak, P. C. Herold and c. Dasgupta, “Tangible Flowchart Blocks for Fostering Logical Thinking in Visually Impaired Learners,” 2020 IEEE 20th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), 2020, pp. 266-268

Abstract – Logical thinking is an essential skill needed to gain expertise in programming. Typically logical thinking is learned using a flowchart, which is a step by step process to reach a particular solution. Because of the visual constraint, teaching logical thinking to visually impaired (VI) students becomes challenging. For VI students‘ concrete experience with real objects is necessary for creating memory. For VI students haptic learning can be facilitated by designing flowchart blocks with appropriate feedback. All the design considerations are made considering the interaction style or challenges for VI students. We focus on developing tangible flowchart blocks to foster logical thinking in VI students. Learning activities were designed using contextual problems where VI students interact with the blocks to form a step-by-step solution. In this paper, we present findings from a pilot study and interviews conducted with three participants for early validation and feedback for the scope of improvement of our product.

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